Students know the sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth's surface; it powers winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
Students know convection currents distribute heat in the atmosphere and oceans.
5a: Students know energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis and then from organism to organism through food webs.
5b: Students know matter is transferred over time from one organism to others in the food web and between organisms and the physical environment.
5c: Students know populations of organisms can be categorized by the functions they serve in an ecosystem.
5e: Students know the number and types of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, a range of temperatures, and soil composition.
6-8 Grade Investigation and Experimentation: Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
7a: Develop a hypothesis. 7b – Select and use appropriate tools and technology collect data, and display.
Select and use appropriate tools and technology collect data, and display.
7c: Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the relationships between variables.
7d: Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.
7e: Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation.
7g: Interpret events by sequence and time from natural phenomena.
7h: Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena.
9th-12th Grade Earth Science
Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.
5b: Students know the relationship between the rotation of Earth and the circular motions of ocean currents and air in pressure centers.
Students know properties of ocean water, such as temperature and salinity, can be used to explain the layered structure of the oceans, the generation of horizontal and vertical ocean currents, and the geographic distribution of marine organisms.
5g: Students know features of the ENSO (El Niño southern oscillation) cycle in terms of sea-surface and air temperature variations across the Pacific and some climatic results of this cycle.
7a: Students know the carbon cycle of photosynthesis and respiration and the nitrogen cycle
9a: Students know the resources of major economic importance in California and their relation to California's geology.
9th-12th Grade Biology/Life Science
6b: Students know how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of nonnative species, or changes in population size.
6c: Students know how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death.
6d: Students know how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.
6e: Students know a vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers.
6f: Students know at each link in a food web some energy is stored in newly made structures but much energy is dissipated into the environment as heat. This dissipation may be represented in an energy pyramid.
Investigation and Experimentation:
1a: Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.
1d: Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.
1g: Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.
1i: Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena.
1j: Recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for controlled tests.
1l: Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science.
Students solve problems involving fractions, ratios, proportions, and percentages.
Students calculate and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Students analyze and use tables, graphs, and rules to solve problems.
Students compute and analyze statistical measurements for data sets.
Students make decisions about how to approach problems.
Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions.
Students organize and describe distributions of data by using a number of different methods.
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.
Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.
Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts.
Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to grade level.
Students deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience.
Students deliver well-organized formal presentations.
National Science Education Content Standards
Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem. Plants and some micro-organisms are producers--they make their own food. All animals, including humans, are consumers, which obtain food by eating other organisms. Decomposers, primarily bacteria and fungi, are consumers that use waste materials and dead organisms for food. Food webs identify the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.
For ecosystems, the major source of energy is sunlight. Energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis. That energy then passes from organism to organism in food webs.
The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition. Given adequate biotic and abiotic resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase at rapid rates. Lack of resources and other factors, such as predation and climate, limit the growth of populations in specific niches in the ecosystem.
The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the earth's surface, such as growth of plants, winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
Risks and Benefits
Risk analysis considers the type of hazard and estimates the number of people that might be exposed and the number likely to suffer consequences. The results are used to determine the options for reducing or eliminating risks.
Students should understand the risks associated with natural hazards.
Individuals can use a systematic approach to thinking critically about risks and benefits.
Important personal and social decisions are made based on perceptions of benefits and risks.
Science as Inquiry
Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension has profound effects on the interactions between organisms.
The energy for life primarily derives from the sun.
The distribution and abundance of organisms and populations in ecosystems are limited by the availability of matter and energy and the ability of the ecosystem to recycle materia ls.